Monday, August 15, 2016

Gettysburg photo mysteries

A few years ago, John Cummings discovered the previously mysterious position of a famous Gettysburg photograph usually titled 'Harvest of Death'. His notes are here. His research also reveals ways in which that era's photographs were artistically manipulated and don't necessarily record reality.

His work leads me to identify the position of another Gettysburg photograph, conjectured to be on the Confederate right in the 2nd day's battlefield near the Rose farm, but whose actual location is also unknown. No one else has made this leap.

In this photo of partially buried Confederate dead, several landmarks appear: the scraggly trees in the background, the up-sloping topography and the pile of white-washed fence boards.

I have highlighted the most interesting element, the pile of fence boards.
In the photograph whose location John has identified, a similar board pile is revealed in the middle distance, highlighted here.
Other than the landmarks, small gnarly trees and up-sloping terrain, there are several ideas regarding this position.
Concerning the currently theorized position being on the CSA right: there are no other photos of Confederate burials in the area; it  was an active combat zone on the evening of the 2nd and the CSA withdrew from it on the night of the 3rd. It's doubtful that exhausted, front-line troops would have engaged in graves operations.
Now, about my conjecture: This zone was behind Confederate lines from the afternoon of July 1st until the evening of July 5th. The troops in the area were not engaged in fighting after the 1st and conducted extensive graves operations until they left the Gettysburg area. The photographer was in the area on the 6th and it's unlikely they would have limited their photo-taking to a few plates on the ridge near where Reynolds was killed.
I believe the photo was taken in he swale in the left middle distance, perhaps near the trees just over the ridge.

Saturday, August 6, 2016

Soldier Ages - Mythical Company Musters Out

Our mythical company of 100 originally enlisted for 3 months and then re-upped for 3 more years.

Now the time to muster out and return to homes and occupations has at last arrived.

Through more then 3 years of warfare, with discharge, disablement, disease, desertion and death thinning the ranks, the 100 soldiers count only 35.

Their ages at the last muster are :

age              number
18 or under    1
19                 2
20                 8
21                 4
22-24           12
25-27            7
over 28          1

Thursday, August 4, 2016

Soldier Ages - some references

'"44 and over" adjutant report' 
turned up the following in a newspaper and a journal. 

They obviously reference the same 'report' and give 1909 as the published year .

From the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 1 1911:

From the Society of the Army of the Potomac, Report of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Reunion (the same text appears in the Reports of the 35th and the 40th) printed in 1908:

Friday, July 29, 2016

Sodier Ages - Mythical Company

Let's use the Adjutant General's data and recruit a mythical 100-soldier infantry company.

At the first drill, the company lines up by age.

As we inspect the ranks, the first 4 'men' are 15 or younger!

Walking the line of soldiers, we see:
age        number
16            4
17           22
18           11
19-21      37
22-24      20
25-43        1

finally, last in line is an old greybeard over 43!

Sunday, July 24, 2016

Soldier Ages - the full text

Here is the transcribed text from the booklet, with words replacing the actual ditto, double-quote, marks :

Grand Army of the Republic

The veterans’ organization was founded by Dr. Stephenson, in Decatur, Illinois, in 1866.  The final encampment was in Indianapolis, Indiana in 1949.

Number of men, by age who served in the Union (from the Adjutant General’s report)
Age 10 and under: 25
Age 11 and under: 38
Age 12 and under: 225
Age 13 and under: 300
Age 14 and under: 1,525
Age 15 and under: 104,987
Age 16 and under: 231,051
Age 17 and under: 844,891
Age 18 and under: 1,151,438
Age 21 and under: 2,159,798
Age 22 and over: 618,511
Age 25 and over: 46,626
Age 44 and over: 16,071

TOTAL . . . . . . 2,778,304 [actually 2,778,309 ]

Friday, July 22, 2016

Soldier Ages - rebuttal

Before continuing an analysis of the 'soldiers ages', let's acknowledge some issues with them.

1) the 'Adjutant General's Report' is an elusive one. I've not seen an original form.  The same text I posted can be found in only 3 or 4 places on the web, but strictly as cut'n'paste. Is it in the official records? Is it the GAR AG or the War Department AG, or someone else?

2) The figures *are* somewhat mind-bending. Most sources use 2.1 million as the number of Union servicemen. The 2.7 million may be double-counting multiple enlistees? Many men would have enlisted for 3 months and then for 3 years.

3) Some numbers are problematic. Only 46,626 servicemen were 25 or over. This number seems way low.

4) many reputable historians use 26 as the average soldiers age. That number is impossible given this data. From where did these writers obtain *their* figure?

Saturday, July 16, 2016

Soldier Ages

Earlier this year I commented on another blog that 40% of Civil War soldiers were 18 or younger and 75% were 21 and under. These are numbers that stuck with me from a lecture sometime last century. Politely challenged, I was unable to find *any* backup for my figures.

This surprised me given the massive Official Records and census data readily available and the web on all topics Civil War.

Browsing randomly (as I tend to) through the booklet "Civil War Union Monuments" published in 1978 by the Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War, I found this page:

Some quick math reveals that 41% of Union soldiers were 18 or under and 78% were 21 and younger. Only 2 in 9 were 22 and older..

Naturally, one source does not a solid conclusion make.

However, my primary thesis is that movies, battle reenactments and living history has instilled in us the idea that Civil War soldiers were old, well-fed and graying.

These numbers tell us that 3 in 4 weren't even eligible to vote.

Sunday, July 12, 2015

Sunset for the confederate flag?

Southern life has too long been shackled (literally and figuratively) to fealty to the CSA and the flag.

Art, culture, politics, literature, heritage, history, education, architecture - anything brushing up with the Confederacy's 4-year life has to pass a test of 'Confederate-correctness'.

 It's been a case of WWJDD, 'what would Jefferson Davis do?'. Virtually everything 'southern' has been viewed through the lens of confederate memory. Anything in conflict with that memory is discarded and the purveyor derided. Now, in a new era, ideas can stand or fall on their own merits.

 The flag should have been lowered when the last CSA veteran was buried

Friday, October 26, 2012

Where is it #2

That first one was pretty easy, as Jeff says it's Fort Davidson .

This one may be more difficult, depends on what you're smokin':

Only comments get credit - email has no standing...

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Where is it?

With regards to Brooks Simpson, here's a Missouri Civil War site. Who knows where?

Tuesday, September 9, 2008

the battle of Athens

Prior to the battle of Wilson’s Creek, Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon pursues the secessionist Missouri State Guard to the state’s southwest corner, but his movement’s also leaves many stranded secessionists behind Union lines as an unintended consequence.

The small battle here in extreme northeast Missouri, on Aug. 5, 1861, reveals a typical Missouri scenario early in the war. Believed to be a pro-Southern hotbed, Athens is seized in July 1861 by pro-Union Home Guard Col. David Moore and 500 men. Moore captures many horses and his men bivouac in the town buildings.

In hopes of “liberating” the Des Moines River town, a pro-southern Missouri State Guard force of more than 2,000 men and a motley 3 gun collection, including a reinforced hollow log, under Col. Martin Green approach.

Although outnumbered, Moore’s men are better armed and fight off the attack, capture 450 horses with full tack, hundreds of arms, and a wagon load of long knives. The defeat demoralizes the State Guard's efforts in Northeast Missouri. They lose the initiative and are obliged to avoid capture by their pursuers rather than move on their own.

Although the Battle of Athens secures northeast Missouri for the Union, it gives a taste of things to come: as Lyon’s quick move southwest leaves many yet-unorganized but armed secessionists behind over much of the state.

Long known as the “farthest north” battle of the Civil War, Athens is the closest actual combat comes to the state of Iowa. It also reveals the confusion of studying the war in Missouri as the battle pits the 'Home Guard' (pro-northern Unionists) against the 'State Guard' (pro-south secessionists)

The historic site encompasses most of Athens including several historic buildings including the “Cannonball House,” with battle scars.

Monday, June 2, 2008

Fremont's Emancipation Proclamation

Union Department commander General John C. Fremont issues an ‘emancipation proclamation on August 30, 1861 declaring rebel enslaved Missourians ‘forever free’. Bypassing Lincoln’s authority, Fremont obviously exceeds his - Lincoln demands Fremont rewrite the proclamation to conform to the 1st Confiscation Act of 1861 which removes slaves from Confederate hands and transfers ownership to the federal government. Fremont declines to admit an error and declines to rescind the order.

The general, ahead of his time by about a year, notes that "The time has come for decisive action; this is a war measure, and as such I make it. I have been given full power to crush the rebellion in this Department, and I will bring the penalties of rebellion home to every man found striving against the Union."

However, at this stage of the war, Lincoln cannot risk alienating border-state, slave-holding Unionists. Knowing he can better contend with the Fremont act’s abolitionist supporters, Lincoln removes him from command in Missouri and revokes the proclamation.

The war’s first act declaring total freedom for the slaves of Confederate masters, allows Lincoln to gauge the political landscape and prepare his arguments for 2nd Confiscation Act of 1862, the Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th amendment to the Constitution.